Interaction design: beyond human- computer interaction1 Jennifer Preece, .. Rogers is a cognitive scientist, Helen Sharp is a software engineer, and Jenny. main topics in Human Computer Interaction offering a comprehensive . The right of Jenny Preece, Yvonne Rogers and Helen Sharp to be identified as the. Book review: Human-Computer Interaction, by Jenny Preece, Yvonne Full Text: PDF strategies for effective human-computer interaction, Addison-Wesley.
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so it is important to design HCI that supports the needs, knowledge and skills of the Human Computer Interaction () by Jenny Preece. A revision of the #1 text in the Human Computer Interaction field, Interaction Design, the third edition is an by Jenny Preece, Helen Sharp, Yvonne Rogers. by Jenny Preece (Author), Helen Sharp (Author), Yvonne Rogers (Author) Product Details Paperback: pages Publisher: Wiley; 4 edition.
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With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more. Start Free Trial No credit card required. View table of contents. Start reading. Book Description A revision of the 1 text in the Human Computer Interaction field, Interaction Design, the third edition is an ideal resource for learning the interdisciplinary skills needed for interaction design, human-computer interaction, information design, web design and ubiquitous computing.
Further Reading Chapter 7: Moving from Requirements to First Design Identifying needs and establishing requirements 2.
Developing alternative designs that meet those requirements. Building interactive versions of the designs so that they can be communicated and assessed. Evaluating what is being built throughout the process Evaluating what has been built is the heart of Interaction Design Three characteristics of the Interaction Design Process:.
Users involved throughout the development of the project 2. Specific usability and user experience goals should be identified, documented and agreed upon at the beginning.
The Goals of Interaction Design: User experience is what the interaction with the system feels like to the users subjectively Satisfying; enjoyable; fun; entertaining; helpful; motivating; aesthetically pleasing; support creativity; rewarding; emotionally fulfilling.
Visibility of System Status Match between system and real world User control and freedom Consistency and standards Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors Error prevention Recognition rather than recall Flexibility and efficiency of use Aesthetic and minimalist design Help and documentation There are always tradeoffs with usability - can't over constrain things, because it limits how much info is displayed top.
Chapter 2: Understanding and Conceptualizing Interaction have a clear understanding of what, why and how you are going to design something before writing any code.
Goals of the chapter: Explain what is meant by the problem space Explain how to conceptualize interaction Describe what a conceptual model is and explain the different kinds Discuss the pros and cons of using interface metaphors as conceptual models Debate the pros and cons of using realism versus abstraction at the interface Outline the relationship between conceptual design and physical design Understanding the Problem Space - the problem with solving a problem on the nuts and bolts level is that critical usability goals and user needs can be overlooked - the design of physical aspects are best done AFTER we understand the nature of the problem space - to understand the problem space: Make explicit your implicit assumptions and claims.
Framework for making your implicit assumptions explicit: See Metaphors description for more information. Envision the proposed product based on users' needs and requirements Do iterative testing What kind of interaction mode would support this? Which interaction mode to use. Those based on activities 1. Jennifer Preece. Exploring and Browsing: Often the best answer is a hybrid such as shopping on the Internet.
Concrete solutions to support the above comes last Development should be done using: Interaction Paradigms. Interface Metaphors definition: Manipulating and Navigating: Interaction Design http: Fleshing out models using variety of user-centered methods.
Issues in testing prototypes: Way information is to be presented and interacted with What combinations of media Kinds of feedback What combinations of input and output devices to use Whether to provide agents and in what format Whether to design operations to be hardwired or through physical objects or software What kinds of help to provide and in what format Physical design decisions come out of conceptual decisions i.
Interaction Design 6 of 40 http: Cognitive aspects of Interaction Design include: These kinds of design decisions need user testing to ensure usability goals. Such as: Sometimes this works well. Both are necessary for everyday life. Information Processing. What cognition is and why it is important for I-D Main ways cognition has been applied to I-D Number of examples from cognitive rese4arch Explain what mental models are Give examples of conceptual frameworks useful for I-D Enable you to try to elicit a mental model and understand what it means Norman said there are two modes of cognition: Experiential real world experiences and Reflective thinking.
It can also give suggestions on what to do in unpredictable situations. Conceptual Frameworks for Cognition: This has helped. Informing Design: From Theory to Practice Theories.. Interaction Design 8 of 40 http: They provide generalizations. There are always external cues in the environment.
Alternative frameworks have been suggested: External cognition and Distributed Cognition External Cognition main idea: Do the same rules apply? Are there more breakdowns? How do they get repaired? Design implications: A key issue has been to determine how to allow for and support people to carry on communicating as if they were in the same place. SMS texting How successful are these? Do they mimic or extend existing ways of conversing? Synchronous CMC: Some existing apps: Social Mechanism in Communication and Collaboration: Conversational mechanisms.
How to design collaborative technologies to support conversation: Back channeling. How to design collaborative technologies to support awareness: Function is to make others aware of the others they are collaborating with. For example: Collaborative activities require us to coordinate with each other. Failure to make them socially acceptable can cause people to not use the system in the way intended or can cause them to abandon it totally.
Examples include: Verbal and Nonverbal communication commands. This can be a home. Awareness Mechanisms: These provide others with awareness of who is around.
Shared calendars. People tend not to follow conventions.
How can user frustration be caused by an interface? How do interface agents anthropomorphism and synthetic characters affect us? Affective Aspects of HCI traditionally.
HCI has been about designing efficient and effective systems recently. HCI has moved towards considering how to design interactive systems to make people respond in a certain way to be happy. Expressive Interfaces Colors. Overburdening the user: Reeves and Naas argue that computers should apologize when they mess up Anthropomorphism in HCI: How much is enough?
Interaction Design 12 of 40 http: Microsoft's 'at home with Bob' interface. Unpleasant Appearance: User-created expressiveness: These make users feel more at ease and comfortable. Error messages: Welcome back. Reeves and Naas found it is helpful to use praise in educational settings when people do something right.
People hate when a computer character shakes their finger at them and says "you can do better than that. Try again. They can be used on the web. Lets get started again. Which is more preferable? Developing a product must begin with gaining understanding of what is required of it.
It increased students willingness to continue working. The Process of Interaction Design The ultimate goal of design is to develop a product that helps its users achieve their goals. They can add a human feel to the system. The goals of this chapter are to: It's nice to see you again. In this case. Virtual Characters virtual characters are becoming more common.
Develop alternative designs that meet those requirements. Criteria are: Is the product fit for the purpose? Specific usability and user experience goals. Design is also about trade-offs and about balancing conflicting requirements.
Evaluate the designs measure their acceptability. In Interaction Design. Generating alternatives is a key principle and one that should be encouraged in interaction. Physical design: Four Basic Activities: The users' concerns direct the development rather than technical concerns. What kind of support will the interactive product provide? Conceptual design: Who is the target user?
Build interactive versions so that they can be communicated and assessed. Alternatives are considered at every point. Identify needs and establish requirements. Designers are trained to consider alternatives. Humans stick to what they know works.
Innovation rarely emerges whole and ready to go. We need to examine existing task Activity Theory? How do you generate alternative designs? It is always necessary to revise ideas in light of feedback.
Then we can envision the task being done in a new way scenarios. Who are the users? Some suggestions: Appropriate support? Task coverage. How do you choose among alternative designs? Iteration is inevitable because designers never get the solution right the first time Practical Issues in Interaction Design: What do we mean by "needs"? There are four basic activities in the interactive design process: This is bad because there is no iteration.
A system or partial system must be delivered on a set of intervals. Users cannot evaluate prototypes Spiral model: Develop [re]design alternative designs that meet those requirements 3. Identify needs and establish requirements 2.
This is helpful for those with little experience. You can move from one activity to another easily. All activities are highly interconnected. Performance measurements? How safe? Which functions are superfluous?
How long does a novice take to learn? High learning curve? How log to remember how to perform common tasks?
Lifecycle Models: Showing how the activities are related. Alternatives are considered and encouraged. Build interactive versions of the designs so that they can be communicated and assessed 4. Evaluation is central to this model Usability Engineering Lifecycle model: Three phases: Before you can begin to establish requirements. Involve users early in the design process and evaluation of the artifact 2.
Prototyping is a useful technique for facilitating user feedback on designs at all stages. Iteration is inevitable Key characteristics of the interaction design process are explicit incorporation of user involvement. Produce a stable set of requirements How can we do this? Data gathering activities Data analysis activities Expression as 'requirements' All of this is iterative Why bother getting it right?
Identifying Needs and Establishing Requirements This chapter talks about different ways to gather requirements by introducing: Lifecycle models show how development activities relate to one another. Understand as much as possible about users. The interaction design process is complementary to lifecycle models from other fields. Usability criteria. Looking at others' designs provides useful inspiration and encourages designers to consider alternative design solutions. Because of this.
What are the organizational hierarchy. Data requirements: What kind of data needs to be stored. What are the social sharing of files. IT department's attitude. What do users 'need'? Requirements need clarification.
Interaction Design 18 of 40 http: Types of requirements: Functional requirements: User requirements: Who are they? Interaction Design 19 of 40 http: The above techniques differ in the amount of time. Some people. The system prompts user for the names of attendees.
Perhaps the system could email them automatically and ask that it be confirmed before it is written in. The user chooses the option to arrange a meeting. The system checks that the list is valid. If the list of people is invalid. The user types in a list of names. The system emails all the meeting participants informing them of them appointment Alternative courses for a shared calendar: Some alternative courses: The user chooses one of the dates. The system searches the calendars for a date that satisfies the constraints.
If no potential dates are found. Example Use Case Diagram for a shared calendar: Example Essential Use Case for a shared calendar: Task Analysis: The user types in meeting constraints.
The system prompts the user for meeting constraints. The system writes the meeting into the calendar. The system displays a list of potential dates. Interaction Design 22 of 40 http: In order to borrow a book from the library 1. Borrowing a book from the library 0. If book not identified do 2. These are grouped as plans which specify how the tasks might be performed in practice HTA focuses on physical and observable actions.
Example HTA Graphical: Getting requirements right is crucial There are different kinds of requirements. Prototyping and Construction This chapter will cover: Visual Basic. Flow of Interaction Design: Evaluation and feedback are central to interaction design stakeholders can see. Task analysis techniques such as HTA help to investigate existing systems and practices top Chapter 8: Which interaction mode? How much structure does it provide? How much is relevant to the problem? Is it easy to represent?
Will the audience understand it? How extensible is it? Conceptual Design: Which interaction paradigm? Is there a suitable metaphor? Two types of compromise: Interface metaphors combine familiar knowledge with new knowledge in a way that will help the user understand the product.
How long will menu be? In what order? What categories will group menu items? How will division of items be denoted? How many menus? What terminology will be used?
Offer error prevention and simple error handling to err is human. What functions will the product perform? What will the product do and what will the human do? Sequential or Parallel? How are they categorized? What information needs to be available? What data is required to perform the task? How is this data to be transformed by the system?
Using them for Conceptual Design. Be consistent 2.