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Scarica libri Italiani Era di maggio EBook gratuit. PDF/EPUB/mobi/mp3/txt Antonio Manzini, 'Era di maggio' prende il via tre giorni dopo gli eventi che. antonio manzini 40 von 5 sternen 2 kindle ausgabe eur weiter vicequestore rocco schiavone vol 4 italian edition summary books era di maggio il vicequestore rocco schiavone vol 4 italian edition epub hnliche bcher wie ragione. Beyond Dimaggio Baldassaro Lawrence Dimaggio Dom, Education And Taniar David Lagan Antonio Mun Youngsong Gervasi Osvaldo Murgante .. David, Star Clusters In The Era Of Large Surveys Moitinho Andr Alves Joo, In The Global Supply Chain Manzini Riccardo, Globalization And The.
PLoS Med. Population-based evidence of a strong decline in the prevalence of smokers in Brazil Bull World Health Organ.
GBD Tobacco Collaborators. Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in countries and territories, a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Drope J, Schluger NW, editors.
The Tobacco Atlas. Practical guidelines on e-cigarettes for practitioners and others health professionals. Rev Mal Respir. E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation. N Engl J Med. Should we recommend e-cigarettes to help smokers quit? Electronic cigarettes. A position statement of the forum of international respiratory societies. Electronic cigarette use in youths: a position statement of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies.
Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes. Nat Rev Cardiol. Physical characterization of the aerosol of an electronic cigarette: impact of refill liquids.
Inhal Toxicol. Electronic cigarette awareness and use among students at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Awareness, trial, and current use of electronic cigarettes in 10 countries: findings from the ITC Project. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century? Electronic cigarette awareness, use, and perception of harmfulness in Brazil: findings from a country that has strict regulatory requirements. Nguyen HV, Sheikh A. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among electronic cigarette users.
Addict Behav. The cigarette controversy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. This international collaboration represents the last of the eight core areas to pursue tuberculosis elimination. Its core objectives are to foster and conduct research on key unmet therapeutic and diagnostic needs in the field of tuberculosis elimination, leveraging on multidisciplinary, multisectoral approaches and supportive interventions i.
Preliminary plans propose to focus on latent tuberculosis infection, multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis rapid diagnosis, and other neglected areas pediatric tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, rehabilitation of tuberculosis sequelae, infection control, etc. In addition, one of the best examples is the Brazilian Rede TB, which shows that the best research efforts, even in a large country as is Brazil, can collaborate to solve country-specific priorities and involve national tuberculosis programs and authorities in the plan.
This new global network aims at collaborating with existing organizations, associations, institutions, and partners that are committed to fight against tuberculosis by complementing and boosting and not duplicating the existing initiatives. The GTN is hosted by WAidid, 12 founded in July of in order to advance the scientific research in the field of infectious diseases and immunology and to disseminate information on the related pathologies. WAidid is the response to the previous lack of a network that links associations and scientific societies focused on infections, vaccines, and immunology.
WAidid, whose membership is free of charge, represents the bridge for a global multidisciplinary approach to infections including tuberculosis operating across all age groups. The GTN is composed of three pillars: 1. Pillar 3 includes the private and pharmaceutical sectors. Several global projects have already started, including an online clinical service aimed at supporting the correct management of difficult-to-treat tuberculosis cases and of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection, as well as the rational introduction of new drugs; a project monitoring adverse events of new antituberculosis drugs; one study on tuberculosis and surgery; and one study on tuberculosis sequelae and rehabilitation.
Global tuberculosis report Geneva: World Health Organization; Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework for low-incidence countries. Tuberculosis elimination: theory and practice in Europe. Eliminating tuberculosis in Latin America: making it the point. Risk factors for tuberculosis: diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, and the use of other drugs.
Stop TB Partnership [homepage on the Internet]. The role of the Brazilian Tuberculosis Research Network in national and international efforts to eliminate tuberculosis. Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners. Outcomes from patients with presumed drug resistant tuberculosis in five reference centers in Brazil. Front Microbiol.
Milan: WAidid; c [updated Aug 31; cited Aug 31]. Clin Infect Dis. Outcomes of patients with drug-resistant-tuberculosis treated with bedaquiline-containing regimens and undergoing adjunctive surgery. J Infect. Although that growth has not been uniform across the different fields of science, a persistent trend can be seen in the various databases available. However, such growth is not free from bias—quite the opposite.
Information regarding the precepts, not only good practices in clinical research but also the associated technical aspects, should first be offered in undergraduate courses and should be maintained throughout the academic life of the researcher, as continuing education.
In terms of the technical aspects, the entire rationale for the design of a study should be understood, from the development of the main research question 4 to the critical analysis of the methodology used and its limitations, as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of the various statistical tests.
Graduate programs tend to focus on those aspects, because their main purpose is to prepare professors and researchers by constructing discipline-specific training centers. However, this initiative seems insufficient, given the extent of the scientific environment and the limited scope of those disciplines. Scientific journals also play a relevant, albeit less explored, role in this process, not only by creating mechanisms to identify and prevent biases associated with the scientific publishing process but also by disseminating the best practices to be followed.
In those two aspects, there is a pressing need to improve the performance of scientific journals. First, they should be able to identify biases. In general, it is well established that the peer review process, despite its various positive qualities, is unable to identify such biases.
The lack of alternative models that do not significantly delay the publishing process has perpetuated this limitation of one of the most common editorial processes. One enormous opportunity that has yet to be taken advantage of by scientific journals is the dissemination of methodological concepts. There are few scientific journals in the field of internal medicine that have sections dedicated to the discussion of the fundamentals of scientific research.
The potential gains from the dissemination of this type of knowledge are quite significant, not only in terms of improving the training of researchers but also in terms of increasing the overall critical thinking capacity of readers in general, which can, over time, function as a mechanism to improve the quality of the available scientific research.
What the JBP has specifically been doing over the past four years is publishing a series of articles about continuing education in scientific methodology, 5 addressing extremely diverse topics, from how to structure a research project 4, to the proper interpretation of different types of studies.
However, in general terms, those articles have already been being used as a point of reference for researchers in the area. The dissemination of methodological concepts addresses only one small aspect of the larger problem. Obviously, continuing education plays an important role, although other initiatives are needed in order to improve the scientific research scenario over the next few years. Funding agencies might have to take more direct action in that sense.
The use of audits, making the reporting of formal aspects regarding methodology mandatory, and requiring analysis of the results in a more conclusive fashion are actions that can be implemented and added to the current project review format without significantly increasing the bureaucracy involved in the current submission and review processes.
Any interventions in the scientific publishing process should be agreed upon by consensus among the members of academia, funding agencies, scientific journals, and even readerships. Otherwise, the organic growth in the scientific literature will not be accompanied by a similar growth in quality. Larsen PO, von Ins M. The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index.
The Economist [homepage on the Internet]. London: The Economist; c; [updated Oct 18; cited Oct 10]. Unreliable research. Trouble at the lab; [about 27 screens]. Sasaki K, Tan S. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. Developing research questions that make a difference. Souza R. Types of outcomes in clinical research. What is the importance of calculating sample size? Choosing wisely between randomized controlled trials and observational designs in studies about interventions.
What does the p value really mean? Understanding diagnostic tests. Part 1. Part 2. He had a history of sickle-cell disease since he was 10 years of age. Chest CT scans revealed bilateral, well-marginated paravertebral masses in the lower half of the thorax, with heterogeneous density Figure 1.
He also presented with a large splenic calcification. The main considerations in the differential diagnosis of masses in the posterior mediastinum, particularly in the paravertebral region, include neurogenic masses, lymphoma, paravertebral abscess, lateral meningocele, and EMH.
EMH is seen in a variety of hematologic disorders, particularly severe hemolytic anemia thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and spherocytosis. Extensive replacement of normal bone marrow occurs when production is insufficient to meet the demands of the body. The most common sites of EMH are the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, although it can occur in any organ.
Thoracic involvement is less frequent, usually manifesting as bilateral lobulated masses in the lower paravertebral areas. The destruction of adjacent A ribs and vertebrae is not seen in EMH. The erythropoietic masses are usually asymptomatic, although the presence of EMH within the spinal canal may be associated with spinal cord compression and neurologic deficit related to the level of involvement.
The imaging manifestations of thoracic EMH can be unilateral or bilateral, sharply circumscribed, often lobulated, paraspinal soft-tissue masses, 1 most frequently seen in the distal thoracic paraspinal region.
CT scans can also be helpful in detecting areas of fat attenuation within these lesions, in depicting bony changes related to hematologic disorders, such as thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia, and in demonstrating splenic infarcts with focal calcifications or a small and dense calcified spleen autosplenectomy , which can aid the differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of EMH can be established with reasonable certainty on the basis of characteristic radiologic findings in a patient with a predisposing hematologic condition.
Invasive diagnostic procedures are potentially hazardous because of the highly vascular nature of the thoracic masses and the hemorrhagic potential of this condition. Microscopic examination shows well-formed hematopoietic tissue. In conclusion, the presence of bilateral, paravertebral masses with associated splenic calcifications are highly suggestive of EMH.
The main clinical finding in these patients is anemia. B Figure 1.
Chest CT scans with lung window in A and mediastinal window in B settings showing bilateral masses in the inferior paravertebral thoracic regions. The masses were heterogeneous, with low density areas, suggesting a fatty component.
The lung parenchyma showed no abnormalities. There is also a large splenic calcification not shown. Extramedullary hematopoiesis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest in 6 patients. J Bras Pneumol ;34 10 The results showed that the atopic patients, when compared with non-atopic patients, had similar asthma control scores Once the analysis is completed, it is expected that investigators take an additional step in the analysis process to make sure that the a priori assumptions of the statistical test selected are met in the dataset assembled for the study.
All statistical tests have underlying assumptions that need to be met so that the test provides results that are valid without unacceptable error regarding the parameter the test is calculating e. In our example, the authors used a t-test to calculate the mean and the standard deviation of asthma control and severity asthma scores in atopic and non-atopic patients using data collected from the study population as a means to represent the truth in similar patients from the source population adolescents with asthma in the USA.
This process, called inference, is only valid if the assumptions of the statistical test are met Table 1.
It is good practice, as investigators, to acknowledge that the assumptions of the statistical tests used to answer their research question have been evaluated and whether they were met or not. If the assumptions of the tests are met, which should be reported in the results section of the study, this assures the scientific community that the results of the study have met one of the important criteria related to their validity.
However, it has been suggested that the assumptions of statistical techniques are often not checked 2 or reported. Reasons for not assessing assumptions include: 1. As educators and investigators, we all need to contribute to the overall goal of reporting high quality research conducted among the populations we serve. Testing the assumptions of statistical tests or models used to answer our research questions is a good start!
In Chapter 4 the judicial system is at the focal point. Not only a forum for decision-making, it also promoted negotiation and thus compromise. Venice appeared an impartial arbiter of cases brought from overseas but the possibility of multiple appeals to decisions amounted to an ongoing negotiation with subject communities.
This powerful but flexible tool even allowed less well-born individuals to bring forward their concerns. These might be equated to a slush fund for contingency spending. While grazie certainly furthered the overall objectives of the maritime empire they also worked at cross-purposes to some of its institutions, e.
The Venetian governors had a crucial role as mediators between the center and the periphery. But acquiring the influence to do this via networks of private influence and patronage led to charges of malfeasance.
Chapter 6 examines instances of denunciation and investigation. Rebellion and protest arose after decades of high taxation, constant war, and Ottoman piracy. Two popular early sixteenth-century uprisings are detailed, on Lesina Hvar and on Crete. To the end, negotiation and appeal were as important as military solutions. In particular, accommodation with the Turks became a primary objective.
The work is completed by two appendices. Appendix B contains genealogical charts of families prominent in overseas office-holding. Very full documentary notes are followed by lists of archival and published sources, and secondary literature. The index is dominated by personal names but excellently covers the chief topics, often singling out specific institutions and the ways in which they were manipulated and circumvented.
The administration of this empire and the destinies of its administrators are unusually well documented for the time period under consideration, but the immediate dynamics surrounding these historical facts — the plot as distinct from the players — are often difficult to discern, so that the study is marked by a plethora of exemplification from which it is hard for the reader, as it must have been for the author, to rise to a higher level of abstraction and formulate more encompassing hypotheses and theory.
Nonetheless, the book offers a most readable account of the often competing dynamics among the Men of Empire and the formal institutions of the Venetian Republic. The Language of Castroreale and Its Territory. Few islands have played a greater, or even comparable, role in history over long spans of time […]. Con delle pennellate fresche e veloci, i due poeti riescono a dare una visione panoramica intensa e personale della loro terra. Mentre si legge, ci si sente davvero a Castroreale.
Rao riporta qui il testo originale usato dai primi anni del fino ai nostri giorni, insieme ad una fedele traduzione in inglese, un copione con ventiquattro personaggi. Dizionario di italianismi in francese, inglese e tedesco. Il DIFIT si avvale di una bibliografia imponente, dalle fonti lessicografiche classiche a quelle online, senza tralasciare gli studi settoriali.
XII, laddove viene preso come esempio il nome Campari: Si tratta, dunque, a mio parere, semplicemente di stabilire se ci sia un italianismo di fatto o meno. Martinez Su alcuni italianismi nella stampa femminile francese, nel volume curato da L. Un altro caso riguarda alcuni termini della danza provenienti da un contributo di R. Trovato, Le parole della musica, Firenze, Qualche parola, infine, sulla provenienza regionale di alcuni italianismi recensiti.
I miti venatori nella letteratura italiana. Gli autori studiati sono dunque quelli centrali per la tradizione: Egli ne analizza puntualmente il formarsi e stratificarsi delle significazioni in varie opere. La lettura di alcune opere iconografiche dedicate a Atteone ed Adone conclude il capitolo sul secolo del barocco Scenes from Italian Convent Life. Weaver sugli spettacoli allestiti nei conventi. Il volume antologico presenta testi di varia tipologia, in italiano con traduzione inglese, che venivano rappresentati nei conventi, ma non solo.
Questo lavoro si propone come un utile e importante strumento di studio corredato da saggi che illustrano il contesto storico, sociale, letterario e teologico dei rari testi editati. A questo saggio, non accompagnato da alcun estratto dalla Santa Domitilla, seguono, con notevole salto cronogico — dal Quattrocento al Seicento — ma non logico, estratti dalla Rappresentazione di Santa Cecilia Vergine e Martire della benedettina Cherubina Venturelli badessa del convento di Amelia, in Umbria, dal al , preceduti da una breve ma dotta e particolareggiata nota di Karolina Bandurski.
La Fabbian si concentra sui cinque sensi e su come essi venivano classificati e considerati nei secoli passati. Daniela Pastina cura invece, con breve nota storica iniziale, la Commedia di Nannuccio e quindici figliastre di suor Annalena Odaldi La Hillman individua nella traduzione delle Vitae philosophorum curata dal religioso veneziano Giovan Felice Astolfi ed edite nel e nel la fonte di suor Clemenza Nenci, autrice del testo e di cui poco sappiamo se non che era una benedettina del convento di San Michele a Prato.
Infatti, oltre allo sposalizio di Iparchia, si narra anche di Ardelone ed Ermilia e degli ostacoli al loro matrimonio. Courtney Quaintance — che ritiene che la Pozzo abbia attinto al De voluptate di Lorenzo Valla, inserendo sue varianti — edita ottimamente questo raro testo, che viene riportato per intero.
La cattedrale di Cremona. Genesi, simbologia ed evoluzione di un edificio romanico. Biblioteca statale di Cremona e Rotary Club Cremona, Analogamente, per illustrare il significato allegorico della cattedrale cremonese utilizzando un antico testo del vescovo di Cremona Sicardo circa , la Cronica, Zanetti non si sofferma tanto sulle caratteristiche che emergono dallo studio di quella particolare cattedrale, ma sui tratti allegorici che Sicardo attribuisce a tutte le chiese cristiane: Queste prime cento pagine, comunque, sono strutturate con precisione e hanno riferimenti a una bibliografia intelligentemente selezionata.
Le cento che seguono, poi, appagano in pieno il desiderio di conoscenze specifiche e approfondite. I lavori della cattedrale si protrassero per secoli il rosone della facciata ovest fu eseguito nel , la scalinata della facciata nord risale al , la facciata meridionale fu conclusa nel , la conclusione dei lavori fu celebrata nel Tutte queste osservazioni di Zanetti sono illustrate da cartine dettagliate e da foto che le confermano in modo puntuale.
Nella prima Annalisa Gobbi studia la caratterizzazione dei materiali lapidei che rivestono esternamente la cattedrale di Cremona, fornendo a sua volta foto che documentano con esattezza le sue conclusioni. In Donne sciolte, Irene Zanini-Cordi skillfully analyzes figures of abandoned women in Italian literature across centuries.
The key question is if these women are condemned or liberated. Taking as models mythological heroines from Greek legends, Zanini-Cordi explores four different archetypes of abandoned women: Zanini-Cordi wants to give a voice to abandoned women, who have been neglected by critics in spite of their constant presence both in mythology and literature.
She argues that although the abandoned woman is generally described in terms of impotency, immobility, and mourning, ironically she often becomes more active and independent after being abandoned. Ultimately, she is forced to find herself a new identity. The weakest of abandoned women is Ariadne, who often becomes paralyzed by heartache.
In Metamorphosis Ariadne transforms into a constellation, whereas the seduced and abandoned Olimpia manages to re-enter society through marriage. Consequently, her existence is characterized by silence and paralysis.
Both works portray widows who have acquired sexual freedom and financial independence, which is why they represent a threat. Preferably, these women should re-marry soon in order to establish the patriarchal order of society, from which they have momentarily managed to escape. Thanks to her somewhat autonomous status, Rosaura can at least choose her future husband out of four candidates. Her choice is, wisely, based on character. Berenice takes one step further: Instead of a husband, she prefers long conversations in good company.
She clearly defies the rules of society. Italian Bookshelf According to Zanini-Cordi, the female seducer is undoubtedly a creation of male fears. As the author emphasizes: She is beautiful, intelligent, dangerous, and vindictive. She is a good actress with magical skills.
Her sexuality is a threat to masculinity, which is why she has to be abandoned for good. Tragically, her re-integration into society is impossible. She also suffers from the famous female malady, hysteria. Rather than being attracted to Fosca, Giorgio is repulsed by her. Fosca manages, however, to seduce him with her lovely voice. Because she is unloved and abandoned, in the end her destiny is even more tragic: Abandoned by Ulysses, Circe develops a passion for writing.
Zanini- Cordi concludes that the pain and suffering caused by abandonment offer this female character the possibility to enter into a symbolic transitional space and time. Finally, we encounter a modern female character, Olga, who does not break down in crisis.
Initially, Olga is portrayed in the traditional female roles of a wife and a mother. However, over the years Olga has somehow lost herself by living solely for others. In the end, Olga finds herself a new identity, without giving up motherhood.
As Zanini- Cordi concludes: As a daughter of Medea, Olga represents a new generation of abandoned women created from a feminine point of view. As Zanini-Cordi accurately proves in Donne sciolte, women writers, such as Petrignani and Ferrante, depict female characters that are no longer imprisoned in the stereotypes of abandoned women traditionally portrayed by their male counterparts.
Like Olga, who falling to the bottom experienced the terrifying vuoto di senso, they take flight by taking charge of their lives. These women become donne sciolte, who in their search for identity assume a fluid way of being that permits them to survive in a male- dominated world.
As promised, in Donne sciolte she has successfully managed to give a voice to abandoned women who, at last, become liberated. Volgarizzamenti e tradizioni discorsive nel Trecento italiano. In fact, Albesano reminds the reader that we still have more than four hundred manuscripts of the Latin text of the Consolatio, copied from the ninth through the fifteen centuries, as well as many translations, commentaries and imitations. Second, her study offers a better understanding of a critical issue, the medieval translations of ancient and contemporary works, a matter that merits greater study.
To understand the real influence and penetration in cultural contexts of important works such as the Consolatio and many others , we cannot underestimate the role and function of translations.
In other words, without ignoring the direct knowledge of the original works by medieval authors and scholars, we also need to acknowledge the fact that the easiest and likeliest way to know ancient and foreign literary works might have been through their translations. Of the eight full translations and five partial translations completed in Italy in the fourteenth century, Albesano considers the four in her book.
First and foremost is the translation by Alberto della Piagentina, in which the original alternation of poetry and prose is fully respected. There are 44 different extant manuscripts of this translation, which was composed between and by della Piagentina while in a Venetian jail.
Concerning scholarly familiarity with the translation, Albesano dedicates less attention to this translation, and points out primarily the relevance of the adaptation of the metrum used by Alberto. The metrum employed by Boethius, typical of the classic elegiac tradition, becomes here the new terza rima, that will also be employed later by other medieval and Renaissance poets as a rendition of modern elegy We still have eight different manuscripts of this translation Next, we have the translation of the Dominican Giovanni da Foligno,composed before , of which seven manuscripts remain Last of all, Albesano studies an anonymous translation of the Consolatio, written in Italian-Venetian and preserved at the public library in Verona, ms.
It is interesting to note that it is based on a French translation in prose, preserved in the ms. As Albesano argues, the translation was probably made by a Northern Italian who had already translated the Consolatio into Italian; its language is also a sign of the circulation and fame of the Consolatio in peripheral parts of Italy such as the Venetian region These last three versions are characterized by many religious insertions especially in chapters XXXV and XXXVI of the original and by a profound structural reorganization of the original work, in order to emphasize the moral and didactic purpose of the Consolatio For instance, Albesano argues, the way in which the three authors connect prose to poetry follows the style of presenting exempla in sermons, because images taken from the parts in poetry sections of the Consolatio are explicitly used as illustrative stories of the theological and moral concepts expressed in the narrative sections.
As it appears, the text of the Consolatio is assimilated to the alternation of rationes and exempla commonly employed in the sermons by Dominican preachers The systematic and drastic reduction of biographical details and historical and mythological references in the original text moves in the same direction.
In the Italian-Venetian translation, for instance, the moral illustrative purpose of these stories — the condemnation of a vice or the illustration of a virtue — is even introduced by a moralisatio, often repeated at the end, to highlight their moral function.
The mythological stories most modified in this way are the myth of Orpheus meter 12, book 3 , Ulysses and Circe meter 3, book 4 , Agamemnon, Ulysses and Polyphemus, Hercules meter 7, book 4 , and the story of the emperor Nero meter 6, book 2 Etica e teologia nella Commedia di Dante: Atti del Seminario Internazionale, Torino, Ottobre Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Justice then is to return the universe to its intended state of ordered harmony.
A Rehabilitation of Says Law. Alongside this critical reflection, she views the Commedia as a story of metamorphosis and development towards a state of human perfection which can only come to fruition within a society. The argument then shifts to detailing the epics of Statius and Lucan and pointing out the cyclical nature and inevitability of vendettas and civil war. Although initially confusing in terms of argumentation, this essay proves exciting in its completion and demonstrates a harmonious and broad reading of Dante in this context.
This essay is a thorough analysis of a well known scene, and, although not ground-breaking in its content, it is nonetheless interesting and engagingly argued. The essay opens with a brief tracing of the manuscript history of the Commedia, before moving onto the main focus on the commentary tradition and in particular the commentary of the so-called Anonimo Fiorentino.
While interesting and informed in its own right, its striking difference in terms of approach makes this essay something of a surprise at the end of what is otherwise a collection rooted in deep textual and literary analysis.
The Reggimento was intended, quite simply, to perform the same function for women. Amor and Curialitas direct the author to transcribe these lessons for the benefit of those who were absent. The nearly one hundred documenti delivered by the figura docens are organized according to twelve allegorical female characters: Until now, the only unabridged version of the Documenti was that of Francesco Egidi Roma: Like Egidi, Albertazzi chose A as his primary exemplar: Abbiamo rinunciato ad elencare le variazioni grafiche A: Albertazzi has regularized but not modernized spelling, capitalization, accents, punctuation, yod representation y and j and the use of the cedilla.
B, which Egidi chose to include in his edition as woodcuts. Albertazzi, however, has included the much more polished, Giottesque versions of ms. A in full color. Each of these images is presented at the beginning of the passage dedicated to its corresponding allegorical personage, which is extremely helpful because, as Egidi himself had pointed out in an article in , the colors are of great importance to a proper understanding of the underlying symbolism.
Albertazzi has made significant corrections to the text, including those proposed in by Maria Cristina Panzera, and changed what had been the traditional mode of graphical representation.
Albertazzi has also elected to separate all the Latin glosses from the poetry and to place them into the second volume. Both volumes provide an index of names and a breakdown of rhyme schemes. All things considered, this new edition is far more useful than its predecessor and will undoubtedly become the new standard. Maney Publishing for the Society for Italian Studies, After a rapid but engaging tour through Donati family history, Boitani gives three close readings of the appearances of Donati family members in the Commedia: These readings create concentric circles of reference for each passage, connecting it to different theological contexts, to different themes in the Commedia, and to different traditions of intellectual writing ranging from Augustine to John Clare.
The third lecture is a culmination more than a conclusion. It is the most expansive of the three sections: Boitani suggests more than he spells out: Le cento novelle contro la morte: Giovanni Boccaccio e la rifondazione del mondo. The work consists of four chapters and has essentially a twofold value. On the one hand, it offers a thorough yet concise background on the Black Death.
On the other hand, Cardini enriches the general field of Boccaccio scholarship by carefully examining the effects of the plague on Florentine society vis a vis the brigata through historical documents and ultimately through consideration of a couple of exemplary novelle. He begins by sketching the historiographical information on the Black Death and noting the two different schools of interpreting the nature of the fourteenth century: According to the author, the letter is fully deserving of attention alongside the Decameron for its simple, efficacious and dramatic beauty.
All the while, Cardini skillfully indicates other potential scholarly avenues that might yield fruitful research for students of Boccaccio. However, Cardini goes as far as to express the meal of the falcon and their convivial union in terms that verge on the parodic in a day dedicated to happy endings through matrimony: Ultimately, he concludes, the ten young people return home having found their personal and comunitaria salvation.
Cardini then makes the valid and necessary point that the impianto teologico to which he alludes does not exclude other interpretations. In this way, the door is left open for readers of his work and the Decameron to follow the numerous historical and literary leads indicated by Cardini along the way and to pick up on intimations made or missed opportunities found throughout the somewhat restricted viewpoint of a handful of referenced novelle.
Schooling in Bergamo and the Venetian Republic, U of Toronto P, In this thorough, well-researched book, Carlsmith guides the reader through one hundred and fifty years of educational practice and reform in Bergamo. In this part of the world, the years represent a key period in history, one during which humanists introduced a new kind of pedagogy. Furthermore, it suffered from an undeserved and distorted reputation as an illiterate town.
Studying the aims and goals of education, the skills both parents and rulers wished to impart on their children or their subjects provides a window into the dominant values and concepts in a society. He aims to break new ground by using a holistic rather than narrow approach to the history of education by examining several kinds of institutions that provided educational opportunities and provides meticulous details available through case studies and microhistories of these institutions.
Around the commune of Bergamo began to sponsor public instruction. Prior to this date, education was controlled by the nobility and the Church. The commune wanted to increase the number of literate bureaucrats, merchants and clergy and was willing to experiment with a wide variety of choices.
Carlsmith also examines the role of law schools from to in his first chapter. Brotherhoods, companies, consortiums, and sodalities were all names given to voluntary associations of laymen who lived by certain rules and performed good works. Other charitable organizations also founded schools, hired teachers and offered scholarships, subsidies, and other forms of economic support for education.
Their level of support ranged from firewood and sacks of grain to multi-year scholarships. During this period, the Church sought to re-establish its dominance in education, casting a wide net to teach reading, writing and the rudiments of Christian faith. The diocesan seminary, on the other hand, provided an exclusive and rigorous orthodox education.
Both institutions had to interact with the commune and had to contend with both Venetian and Milanese oversight. The primary ministry of the Jesuits and the Somarchans was education, but the Jesuits were repeatedly rejected in the area until the eighteenth century.
The Somarchans supervised orphanages and public schools. Ecclesiastical institutions did not limit themselves solely to religious education. Chapter 5 examines home schooling practices, private tutoring, and the creation of a private, cooperative academy focused on providing a classical curriculum. Historically, tutors were hired by prince and patriarchs, and humanist scholars traveled from town to town.
Few parents in Bergamo could afford private tutors, but going beyond existing institutions, elite parents who wanted a classical education for their children founded the Caspi Academy in , which aimed to provide both a religious and secular education. Case studies provide examples of methods of recruiting, hiring, and the expectations of the instructors, examples of contracts, teaching careers, and the introduction of new practices.
Several illustrations, frescoes and woodcuts show education in action, reminding us that books were scarce and that lectures, oral communication, and memorization were still important components of the educational practices of the times. Saggio di una bibliografia garzoniana.
In the last forty years the work of the Regular Lateran canon Tomaso Garzoni from Bagnacavallo has been rediscovered and studied not only in Italy, but also in France, Spain, Germany and the United States. After the introduction, the text consists of three sections. The editors also include the reproductions of the title pages of the editio princeps of each text, their early modern translations and latest editions in Italian and other languages, other editions of selected works by Garzoni, and an index of the names of scholars and editors in alphabetical order.
Scholars will appreciate the plethora of information in reference to the commentaries of the two modern editions of La piazza, published in by Einaudi and Olschki. The last two topics were at the center of a debate about natural and black magic flourishing in Italy and in Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in religious, medical and philosophical milieux.
Was Garzoni ready to start a new chapter in his intellectual life? It seems possible, even though it cannot be proven with absolute certainty. Pagina principale It is a beautifully written and thoroughly researched work that addresses the still underrepresented topic of Dante and music. The Florentine poet lived through momentous changes in the fields of music education and performance, the biggest novelty consisting in the growing repertoire of polyphonic hymns and chants.
The first chapter of the book presents the results from an impressive array of musicological studies, all converging towards a similar conclusion: According to the author, Dante might also have heard some forms of composed polyphony, like conductus and motets, perhaps also during his stay at the papal court of Boniface VIII in Ciabattoni expounds with great clarity the aural itinerary.
On a deeper level of analysis, the author identifies a system of musical references and carefully planned internal symmetries underlying the Comedy. An important tenet of medieval music theory was the necessity of a musical balance between body and soul, a sympathetic relationship, the lack of which needed to be cured with musical therapy.
The musical architecture of the poem was influenced by well-established ideas of the Scholastic tradition, whose precepts conditioned both theoretical and practical aspects of music production. The superiority traditionally attributed to vocal over instrumental music, for instance, is reflected in the Inferno through a preeminence of similes based on music instruments; one of the most famous examples is the lute-shaped character of Master Adam, whose abdomen sounds like a drum when hit by Sinon the Greek.
In choosing the lute, Ciabattoni argues, Dante was well aware of its humble role among the chordophones as an instrument of Arabic origin, mostly used for popular entertainment; thus, the lute becomes a comic counterpart of the nobler cetra evoked in Paradiso in association with the eagle formed by the blessed Par. Far from being merely a decorative element, music in the Comedy has a structural function: More simply, music is one of the means employed by Dante to get around the conundrum of having to put down in words an experience that transcends human senses.
The desperate cry of a musicless soul opens the poem, like a strident anticipation of the infernal danse macabre; on the other end of the musical spectrum, the harmony formed by the angelic choirs is the greatest representation of a joy deriving from the sheer presence of God, something no words could ever fully express.
One can illustrate the shift from a bi-dimensional to a tridimensional plane by folding a sheet of paper to form a cube; the idea of a four-dimensional structure is much harder to grasp, and yet we can somehow fill this conceptual gap through a spatial metaphor, e.
Ciabattoni concludes his investigation with a chapter dedicated to the Music of the Spheres. Notes by Anthony Oldcorn. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. Likewise both translators place their English version on pages facing the original Italian, inviting comparisons between ancient Italian and modern English.
The advantages to a classical background, steeped in mythology and Virgilian vocabulary, should be apparent even to the cursory reader of Dante, who according to Virgil-Character knew the Roman epic thoroughly: Sensitive to these classical echoes, allusions, and parallels, Lombardo often goes to great lengths to highlight them, which can be a bonus for the novice reader and an annoyance for the seasoned scholar see below.
Note, for example, the effortlessness of the rhymes and even an occasional hendecasyllable in the celebrated closing speech of Ulysses Inf. Five times had we seen it wax and wane, the light on the underside of the moon, since we began our journey on the main, And then a mountain loomed in the sky, still dim and distant, but it seemed to me I had never seen any mountain so high.
Three times it spun her around in the water, and the fourth time around, up the stern rose and the prow plunged down, as pleased Another, Until above us we felt the waters close.
For example, Inferno 26 also begins with a rhyming of the first and third verses: Neither does Lombardo shy away from using slang terms when the original calls for it. Succinct prose synopses introduce each canto, and narrative divisions within cantos are separated by an extra line of space.
Specialist readers may find it annoying when Dante is attempting to be allusive and the translator insists on being specific, especially when it means adding proper names not present in the original.
A prime example occurs in Inferno 2. The poet makes a series of allusions comparing the pilgrim to Aeneas and St. The translator removes the punch from that pivotal verse by inserting the names of Aeneas and Paul when he translates the preceding periphrastic expressions: None of these italicized names my emphasis appears in the Italian.
Why are they not mentioned specifically by name until the Pilgrim claims he is neither? Dante-Pilgrim literally is neither Aeneas nor Paul, but figuratively and dramatically he is both of them. Anthony Oldcorn, emeritus professor of Italian Studies at Brown University, compiled the urbane notes accompanying the translation. He rarely misses a biblical reference or a classical allusion in the Dantean text, whether it is to Virgil, Ovid, Statius, or Lucan. He makes excellent but sparing use of well- known twentieth-century commentators, such as Contini, Ferrante, and Freccero.
Eliot, and Seamus Heaney invariably prove enlightening. Only occasionally does the venerable Oldcorn stumble, as when he asserts, while annotating Inferno Such minor errors, however, can easily be remedied in the next printing. In sum, this highly readable translation, with its impressive but comprehensible introduction and informative but not overpowering scholarly apparatus, is destined to become a new favorite in American high schools and college campuses.
The Hospital of Incurable Madness. Daniela Pastina and John W. Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Depictions of the mentally ill during the late Renaissance have never been as riveting as those presented in The Hospital of Incurable Madness. As one might surmise, the vernacularizing of literary canonical writings would not have been well received by the Church, given the times. Nonetheless, the use of the vernacular to educate the reading public allowed Garzoni to take a few liberties.
These are then subdivided into a variety of disorders that afflict the mad. The men inhabiting each area are given by far the most attention, whereas the women are relegated to the last eleven pages of the book, reflecting contemporary preconceptions. Women, on the contrary, while also divided by the same disorders, are isolated in individual cells, are nude and are watched over by a Superintendent. They are involved in domestic activities and have no recourse to the gods for assistance.
He presents Giacoma of Piangipane as follows: Such comments, however, are actually intended to mock the insane, thus drawing attention to their moral sins. In fact, madness for Garzoni represents a failure of human reason. Those who crossed the moral line were thus deemed prostitutes. Women were portrayed as engaged in domestic chores, for it was thought that this activity might reunite them with the outside world.
In fairness to the translators, they do state that they were aiming for an idiomatic English translation. I would also have liked to see the original text on the facing page for comparison, but publishing requirements being what they are, this was probably unfeasible.
The notes are exceptionally thorough and added to the understanding of the text for those not familiar with the more obscure mythological references and the like. Surprisingly, Lelia admits to enjoying her male role and being kissed by another female. The gender-swapping of this sixteenth-century comedy was further complicated by the fact that male actors were playing the kissing women.
Giannetti argues that seicento comic theater, with its characters and situations drawn from quotidian life, can serve as a lens through which to examine gender, homosexuality, and marriage during the Renaissance. Their cross- dressing and feminization were often central to the humor and action of many plays. In Renaissance society, boys were labeled as male, but did not yet have the social or economic power of older men.
Yet while the young theatrical characters successfully assumed the adult male role at the end of the play, the boy actors would continue play female roles for years. The pedant- student relationship, in such theater, reveals a more general power imbalance between older and younger men and perhaps served as a warning of how such a relationship could materialize in real life. Often true love was contrasted with the misery of a loveless arranged marriage.
On stage, the young lovers circumvented obstacles with clandestine marriages, while the unhappy married woman sought solace in extramarital affairs. Looking beyond the canonical comedies, Giannetti found a surprisingly rich discussion of married life, offering alternatives to arranged marriages. Here, love wins, but often through adultery and premarital sex.
The prominence and popularity of these themes in comedies suggest a general anxiety over the practice of arranged marriages and evidence that art imitated life and, perhaps in some instances, life imitated art. Giannetti reveals a rich dialogue both on and off stage that portrayed, discussed, challenged, and contributed to seicento ideas on gender, homosexuality, and marriage. Dopo la consueta prefazione alla collana firmata dagli editori, in una lunga introduzione Haskins svolge il duplice compito di riassumere la storia del culto mariano dalle origini alla Controriforma e di contestualizzare storicamente i testi pubblicati Senza il sostegno di una vera e propria discussione filologica, vengono quindi pubblicate le traduzioni dei testi di Vittoria Colonna, Chiara Matraini e Lucrezia Marinella.
Essay and Studies Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, The volume presents a wide and multifaceted approach to Ovid, encouraged by the interdisciplinary subject, which places Ovid and later writers on the same level of interest.
As a result, while highlighting the different practices of reading Ovid by authors from various historical contexts, the collection also displays different methods of scholarly reflection on Ovid and later artists. In some papers, traditional approaches of textual analysis reveal a deep and enlightening dialogue between Ovid and subsequent authors: Some of the essays in this volume are particularly valuable in pointing out the evolving notion of Ovid as an authority on various matters.
First, Ovid appears to be perceived as a literary authority, providing examples of narrative strategies see Fumo on Chaucer representing the Wife of Bath as a storyteller , and acting as a key to decode figures of speech. Considering Ovid as a moral authority requires taking into account the problematic interaction between the pagan poet and Christian doctrine. Criticism in the Middle Ages found such models also in Ovid.
A major result of inquiring into Ovidian authority is the revelation that he is a modern poet in a modern world. This is true in two ways.
On the one hand, the Metamorphoses contains elements of originality appealing to writers ready to withdraw from medieval intellectual systems. In general, the collection provides a rich and complex reflection, posing interesting problems of method and content, and suggesting perspectives for new studies. A rich bibliography and a remarkable corpus of illustrations complete the volume. This lively and thought-provoking book proves how the multiform content of Metamorphosis accounts for the continuity of its fortune, which is deeply rooted in European cultural history.
The poem changes its focus with the changing interests of the ages, thus mirroring the subject of the poem itself. King and Albert Rabil Jr. Their comments begin with sections on Greek philosophy, Roman law, and the establishment of Christian doctrine. King and Rabil state that it was with the advent of the humanist foundation that things began to change: Their series provides a forum for the publication of a variety of texts written by and about women.
The volume on Chiara Matraini fits in perfectly with the desire of the series editors to provide a new space for these voices, as there has been a rediscovery of Matraini in the last thirty years. The bulk of her comments are available in her previously published articles and book. This is, however, the first time this information is available in English. Maclachlan does not translate the Rime in its entirety. Maclachlan chose two to three poems out of every five: She includes forty-six poems out of the original ninety-nine.
The poems are presented in facing page translations. She does not concern herself with reproducing the rhyme present in the Italian, but does respect the form of the poems sonnet, madrigal. For all of these prose works, only the English translations of the texts are provided. When Matraini includes a poem with the prose, Maclachlan provides both Italian and English.
This volume is significantly different from the previous publication, for only twenty-eight poems out of eighty-seven are in common with Book A. Through computerized searching, she was able to isolate poetic imitatio as it pertains to the poems included in this volume. Maclachlan has done a great service for the English speaking audience interested in Italian Renaissance poetry. She has provided translations of a variety of works and has also placed those works within a chronological framework.
Previously such a variety of selections had not been available to English speakers. This monograph could perhaps make the poet more readily known to scholars of the period. Matraini, as a student of writers such as Petrarch, Bembo and Vittoria Colonna, was an important feminine voice of the second half of the sixteenth century. Her rich and intriguing poetry is deserving of further recognition by those interested in the early modern period.
Donna oggetto del discorso letterario e soggetto della creazione poetica, quindi sguardi e voci, visages e paroles. Da questa doppia prospettiva, perennemente dialogante, deriva la divisione in due parti della raccolta. Entrambi i saggi sono dotati di utili appendici: Raffa, professor of Italian at University of Texas at Austin.