Encyclopedia of world climatology pdf

 

    ENCYCLOPEDIA of WORLD CLIMATOLOGY. Pages Β· climatology. Preview Encyclopedia Of Mathematics (Science Encyclopedia) [8 MB].pdf. Encyclopedia of World Climatology This comprehensive volume covers all the main subfields of climatology, Download Sample pages 1 PDF ( KB). ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH SCIENCES SERIES. ENCYCLOPEDIA of. WORLD CLIMATOLOGY edited by. JOHN E. OLIVER. Indiana State University. Springer.

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    Encyclopedia Of World Climatology Pdf

    Encyclopedia of World Climatology - Edited by John E Oliver | π—₯π—²π—Ύπ˜‚π—²π˜€π˜ 𝗣𝗗𝗙 on ResearchGate | On Mar 1, , Dominic Kniveton and others published. The Encyclopedia of World Climatology. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. John E. Oliver, ed. Dordrecht, the. Netherlands: Springer, xx and pp. Get this from a library! Encyclopedia of world climatology. [John E Oliver;].

    Bastien-Olvera History of Climatology Bernardo Bastien Introduction Climatology has been important for humans since ancient times, it has played key roles in the understanding of diseases, agricultural patterns, geological processes and more. What we know nowadays as climatology has been shaped from basically two parallel narra- tives: a geographical and a physical one. Geographical explorations, classifications and studies were the first approaches to climatology, defining climate as a local characteristic of a place, forged by several geographical attributes such as latitude, oceanic proximity or mountain in- fluences. On the other hand, physical scientists gradually constructed a set of tools and par- ticular theories, specifically in the area of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics, that eventually provided a more complete understanding of the climate, mainly characterized by its global dimension and its non-static nature. In this essay, it is provided a rough description of this evolution of climatology and it is briefly discussed the current state of the field, concluding with the question of whether it is moment to another paradigm shift in which geography could play a leading role. Early climatology Climatology is the study of climate, defined as the statistical weather characteristics over a period of time Landsberg and Oliver, However, the most important forcing could be identified as the solar radiation, the fundamental source that activates the climate. Moreover, the Greeks noted that the desserts to their south and the cold regions to their north were actually an expression of the different angles of sunlight incidence at different lat- itudes Edwards, ; Miller, This conceptual model became so important that even the parallels drawn in Ptolemaic maps 2nd century CE were labeled using the day length of the particular latitudes, which are equivalent to sunlight incidence angles but in a more under- standable and intuitive version Diller, Even before these first conceptions of what causes different climates, Greek philosophers were already familiar with several ideas around the effects of it, as shown by the studies of Hippocatres, who made remarkable observations of human health as a function of climates, seasonality and weather events as early as 4th century BCE Falagas et al. Climate gradually started to be central part of their studies. A product of this was the conceptual division of the world into horizontal climate zones, proposed by Parminedes of Elea in the fifth century BCE, who suggested the following climate bands: bitter cold in the top and bottom of the Earth, torrential winds and precipitation in the equatorial region, and two habitable zones in mid-latitudes, were Greece was obviously located Talbert, ; Roller et al. The ancient Greek understanding of climate had a long lasting effect on subsequent de- velopment of ideas in the western world and for this reason it is one of the most documented storylines. However, other contemporary cultures had also a vast understanding of climate and although the objective of this text is not to unravel the hidden origins of climatology, it is imperative to at least mention a couple of examples.

    This conceptual models aggregated the experiences, narratives and navigational charts in order to construct theoretical descriptions of the dynamics of the atmosphere. Halley proposed an explanation of the trade winds by creating a conceptual model of two atmospheric cells formed by warm air masses at the surface of the equator that were lifted up and carry water and heat towards the poles.

    Later, Hadley elaborated on the implications of air masses circulating within a rotating Earth and conceptualized the coriolis effect3. Moreover, Dove and 3 The coriolis effect is the observed deflection in the movement of air masses caused by a latitude-dependent acceleration generated by the rotating Earth.

    Although Hadley started to question this observed deflections in , it was until when Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis suggested a mathematical description for it in the context 4 Ferrel added a second and a third circulation cell to the initial model Dove, ; Ferrel, In addition, the contemporary works of Coffin , who analyzed a substantial amount of winds for the northern hemisphere, supported the theoretical aggregations to the initial two- cells circulation model.

    It is around this period when we can start to notice a bifurcation on the study of climate. On the one hand, the naturalists such as Alexander von Humboldt were approaching the climatol- ogy in a geographic way, on the other hand, the hard sciences started to develop the scientific framework that would eventually be essential for the study of climate.

    The following section presents the major storylines of both sides during the 19th and 20th century. Recent history of climate studies Geographical understanding of climate Recalling the Humboldtian understanding of climate as the changes in the atmosphere that could be perceived by the human, it is straightforward to think about an extended connection to any living organism.

    In that sense, botanics was a major discipline that helped to develop climatological ideas in the 19th century Landsberg, Initially it was developed a scheme of plant cover as a function of latitude, then, more complex climatic elements were added and even described for the first time in botanical studies, such as the works of Schouw , which although focusing in botanics, it is the first that proposes the relation of sea levels and the dragging force of wind during the monsoon.

    Moreover, Landsberg describes the contemporary works on the relations of temperature with tree rings and the addition to other important variables to the studies of organisms classification, such as continental, marine and mountain environments seen as modifiers of the mean latitudinal climate. This studies were also permeated by the interest of knowing the influence of climate on agriculture e. As a result of continuous observations in this field, several authors started to notice apparent of the dynamics of an hydraulic wheel Coriolis, Among the principal authors on this subject was M.

    VI made a compelling book that elaborated on this causal relation. In that context, Thompson describes the early studies on American changes in climate due to human disturbances to forests.

    Heymann states that these ideas were being speculated as early as Christopher Columbus. These studies gave raise to different sort of misconceptions that even generated incorrect practices on forest management Naudts et al.

    The fact is that data and the understanding of the climate dynamics was still missing. Another backbone on the climate data collection and systematization was the navigation community. The driving force behind the sea-men contributions to the field was a practical one. Maury describes that the common objective that unified navigators was the mapping of sea routes. The data collection and knowledge-sharing network that was created in this context was decisive to the history of climate Miller, On the geological front, several inquiries about climates of the past started to arise.

    Around , Johan von Charpentier noticed huge blocks of granite in Rhone Valley and suggested that they might have been transported by glaciers Von Charpentier, Later, Agassiz and Bettannier did an extensive study of the formation and dynamic of glaciers, specifically in the Alps, stating that the historical and geological observations were proofs of immense oscillations of the climate, concluding that ice 6 ages must have existed.

    The implications of the ice ages were later extended to their effects on biological diversity of the past, creating a link with the parallel studies of botanics and climate Anderson et al.

    In terms of pure climate studies, this period was characterized by improvement of descrip- tion and classification techniques. These studies and more were critical to the modern climatology Miller, , however, Landsberg points out that most of the dynamical explanations were erroneous.

    The affluence of misconceived concepts were in part due to the limited role of climatology as a provider of classification framework to studies on environmental determinism Gregory, In that sense, we can identify this period as a time of knowledge accumulation4 more than advances in understanding the nature of climate.

    Parallel to this, other scientists were building up knowledge that would eventually inform the subsequent studies of climate. Physical understanding of climate While the exploratory and classificatory research on climatology was going on, another kind of studies were slowly developing, the kind of studies that understand the atmosphere as a fluid that exchanges mass, momentum and energy.

    The work done by Jean-Baptiste Fourier in the field of terrestrial temperature at the begin- ning of the 19th century is seen as the initiation of climate science Hulme, ; Fleming, Further works converted the intuitive concepts into formal physics, Tyndall iden- tified the mechanism that was previously proposed by Fourier, showing experimentally how certain gases commonly found in the atmosphere, such as the water, absorbed long-wave ra- diation.

    On this train of discoveries, Svante Arrhenius calculated the influence of the carbonic acid CO2 in the planetary energy balance. Anderson et al. Decades later, Guy Callendar proved that this mechanism was working, he collected global data of average temperatures and estimations of worldwide fuel combustion, calculating that the atmosphere was heating at a rate of 0. Although it is recognized that his timeseries might have been affected by internal climate variations or volcanic forcing, it stands as a great contribution to the field Hawkins et al.

    In a parallel narrative, climate was also being studied from an astronomical perspective, adding to the equation of climate variations the relative position of the Earth with respect to the Sun. Moreover, the atmosphere was also studied through the lens of fluid dynamics, giving way to the understanding of atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics.

    First, this happened with a variety of experiments that used rotating plates that contained fluids representing the atmosphere6.

    Climate Science

    This kind of experiments evolved hand by hand with hydrodynamics theory Taylor, and were the major tool for atmospheric simulation before the computational era.

    An important concept developed within this kind of studies was the connection between atmospheric and oceanic circulation Gregory, , which shows one of the first approaches to the integral understanding of climatology. By the beginning of the 20th century, the physicist Vilhem Bjerknes described a set of differential equations representing the physical relations between atmospheric variables. This revolutionary scheme served as a framework for the description of the physical processes and the development of modern meteorology Gramelsberger, ; Thorpe et al.

    Later, the focus was on trying to solve those equations using non-analytical methods, which proved to be useless, so the numeric approach to solve the problem was born7. The physical understanding of the climate showed a globally-integrated view of the system.

    The new theories and models were connecting the individual characteristics of local climates into an integrated global circulation. They were providing the analytical tools not for classify- ing, but for study the changes of the climate. From the local to the global view, from the static to the dynamic climate. The focus shifted away from the traditional geographic understanding of climatology, to the physical perspective of a climatic science.

    One of the major leaders in the climatic field at that time was John von Neumann, who started to solve the atmospheric circulation equations with the first comput- ers8 Randall, ; Harper, Later, while computer power increased, the atmospheric circulation models known as GCMs, standing for General Circulation Models were improved: they went from solving the equations in a few grid-cells Phillips, to even couple the oceanic circulation to the atmosphere Manabe et al.

    This models were known as Earth System Models and are the current state of the art in our understanding of the climate system Edwards, The international collaboration on this field grew along with he evolution of these models.

    The more complex they were, the more research teams needed to be involved. This interna- tional climate research community eventually expressed a real concern of the anthropogenic global warming and its associated climate change Bolin et al.

    It is important to keep these international organisms in mind, since they influence the ma- jority of climate research that is done nowadays. We should notice that the existence of such a worldwide authority in climate science, might raise some undesired outcomes, like homoge- neous or biased approaches to the questions that are posed within the discipline. Currently, the main question on climate science research focuses on avoiding dangerous levels of climate change.

    To accomplish this goal is necessary a whole set of interdisciplinary research groups, each one focused on a particular component of the solution to the problem.

    Studies focused on generating and running the Earth System Models and General Circulation Models using specific sets of scenarios that allow its systematic analysis. These branch of study generates models that link human systems such as agriculture, energy and economy with simplified climate models in order to find optimal socioeconomical development paths. Another line of research has been done by studies that link different methodologies, results and models from other major studies in order to solve climate change specific questions.

    Outside this framework, there had been several critiques to the tools and research paths that the international entities have been promoting, pointing out that in most of the cases these ap- proaches perpetuate the system that originated the initial problem Wright and Nyberg, Knutti et al. Werner describes the human-Earth interactions within a machine-like framework fueled by the dominant global culture that generates environmental challenges as consequences, such as cli- mate change.

    He proposes that the only mechanisms that could slow down the dynamics of the system are those generated out of it such as blockades, protests and sabotages. Along this line, Naomi Klein disentangles the political and social framework in which we are immersed, trying to shed light over it and encouraging steps to move away from it.

    Within the current trajectory of the study of climate, it is worth to ask whether it is needed a paradigm shift in climate studies. I consider that the holistic set of tools and the integrated understanding within geography as a discipline, make it a good candidate for leading the de- velopment of a critical and effective climate science. References Agassiz, L.

    Etudes sur les glaciers. Jent et Gassmann. Anderson, T. Endeavour, 40 3 β€” Arrhenius, S. On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground. Barry, R. A brief history of the terms climate and climatology. International Journal of Climatology, 33 5 β€” Becquerel, M. Greening capitalism?

    Organization Studies, 33 11 β€” Bolin, B. A history of the science and politics of climate change. Cambridge University Press Cambridge. Bridges, J. The opus majus of roger bacon. Callendar, G. The artificial production of carbon dioxide and its influence on tem- perature. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 64 β€” Coffin, J. Winds of the northern hemisphere. Smithsonian institution. Coriolis, G. Diller, A. The parallels on the ptolemaic maps.

    Isis, 33 1 :4β€”7. Dove, H. Meteorologische untersuchungen: Von HW Dove Edwards, P. History of climate modeling.

    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2 1 β€” Ekholm, N. On the variations of the climate of the geological and historical past and their causes. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 27 :1β€” Falagas, M. Unusual climatic conditions and infectious diseases: observations made by hippocrates.

    An essay on the winds and currents of the ocean Fleming, J. Joseph fourier, the greenhouse effect, and the quest for a universal theory of terrestrial temperatures. Endeavour, 23 2 β€” Fourier, J. Theorie analytique de la chaleur, par M. In Annales de Chimie et de Physique, volume Geiger, R.

    Naturwissenschaften, 21 5 β€” Gramelsberger, G. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 18 6 β€” Gregory, J.

    Climatic variations: their extent and causes. Gregory, K. The changing nature of physical geography. This comprehensive volume covers all the main subfields of climatology, supplies information on climates in major continental areas, and explains the intricacies of climatic processes.

    The level of presentation will meet the needs of specialists, university students, and educated laypersons. A successor to the Encyclopedia of Climatology, this compendium provides a clear explanation of current knowledge and research directions in modern climatology. This new encyclopedia emphasizes climatological developments that have evolved over the past twenty years. It offers more than informative articles prepared by experts on numerous subjects, ranging from standard areas of study to the latest research studies.

    The relationship between climatology and both physical and social science is fully explored, as is the significance of climate for our future well-being.

    ENCYCLOPEDIA of WORLD CLIMATOLOGY

    The information is organized for speedy access. Entries are conveniently arranged in alphabetical order, thoroughly indexed, and cross-referenced. Every entry contains useful citations to additional source materials. About the authors John E. He holds a B.

    climate | National Geographic Society

    D from Columbia University. He has written many books and journal articles in Climatology, Applied Climatology and Physical Geography. Reviews From the reviews: "This comprehensive volume covers all the main subfields of climatology, supplies information on climates in major continental areas, and explains the intricacies of climatic processes.

    It provides a clear explanation of current knowledge and research directions in modern climatology ….

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